It's not clear too me what your problem is. Can you include a screenshot showing your issue?
This is the screen from my most used template. In the previous version on the left hand side of the screen there was a list of the different choices. Eg the blue dot shows water meters I used to be able to select whether I required them on the map. I cant work out how to change what is displayed on my map.
Glamorgan Vale Water Board
From your description, it sounds as if it's the Layer list your are missing.
Within MapInfo Pro 17.0, this can be found in the Explorer window. To open the Explorer window, go to the HOME tab, click on the Tool button in the Windows group and then finally click on the Explorer element in the dropdown.
You should now see the Explorer window as shown in the image below.
You can place it in multiple places - that's all up to you. By default, I think, it will dock itself on the left side of the screen.